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All Rights Reserved |. [14] Each of these two rooms had a single recessed circular window, appearing as an inverted nipple when viewed from the outside. The project is located in Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis (93), Ile-de-France, France, Europe. Plasticienne, peintre, sculptrice et réalisatrice, Niki de Saint Phalle est devenue internationalement célèbre dans les années 1960. fish? The following January, she produced a new version of the film, with additional scenes in Soisy and New York, and an expanded cast. These were flat, planar, see-through outlines of heads and figures, highlighted by patches of color. Throughout, she continually disrupted long-held conventions in art, and her iconoclastic approach to her identity and society at large made her an early and important voice to both the Feminist movement and the development of early Conceptual Art. [109], Catherine-Marie-Agnès Fal de Saint Phalle, According to the Saint Phalle's wedding announcement in. The outer form was a giant, reclining sculpture of a pregnant woman (a Nana), whose voluminous interior could be entered through a door-sized vaginal opening between her legs. [84][9][23][58] Her Tirs series and assemblages reflected the violence of the early 1960s Algerian War for independence from France and asserted her rebellion as part of second-wave feminism. [30][11], In August 1961, Marcel Duchamp introduced Saint Phalle and Tinguely to Salvador Dalí, who invited them to create a life-sized exploding bull with fireworks (Toro de Fuego). [11], In 1986 Menon left to attend a drama school in Paris,[11] but kept secret from Saint Phalle that he had contracted AIDS. Descubre Niki de Saint Phalle, les couleurs de la vie - Les Grandes Heures Ina / Radio France de Niki de Saint Phalle / Jean Daive en Amazon Music. In 1960, however, the couple separated and Saint Phalle moved to a new apartment, established a studio, and met artist Jean Tinguely, with whom she would collaborate artistically. [106], A short, annotated bibliography is available at the Niki Charitable Art Foundation website. In 1974, Saint Phalle suffered from a serious lung illness and was advised by her doctors to spend some time in Switzerland to recuperate. Saint Phalle reported later in her life, in an autobiography titled Mon Secret(1994), that her father had sexually abused her from age 11. [47] To control vandalism, the installation was donated to the French state, which has taken responsibility for its safeguarding and maintenance. [37], In 1998, she created a series of Black Heroes sculptures in honor of African-Americans who made major contributions to sports or jazz, including Miles Davis, Louis Armstrong, and Josephine Baker. Yet at age 23, she suffered a nervous breakdown, soon after marrying her first husband, American writer Harry Mathews. Within a year, they had moved in together and begun a romantic relationship. She was encouraged to paint as a form of therapy, and consequently gave up her theater studies in favor of becoming an artist. Tours, France, for two years. [11] She also became an active member of the San Diego art scene, participating in fund-raisers and exhibitions there. During his previous two years of declining health, he had stopped taking medication and began preparing for death. With Niki De Saint Phalle, Rainer von Dietz, Mia Martin, Clarice Mary. [53] The entry structure also houses a ticket office, a gift shop, and restrooms for visitors. [30], Soon, she would start by embedding knives, razor blades, scissors, eggbeaters, baby-doll arms, and other household items in plaster covering a large board, along with bags filled with colorful paints, cans of spray paint, and sometimes tomato. [31] This work would later be acquired by the Moderna Museet in Stockholm,[23] and would mark her transition to a new series of fantastic monsters, animals, and female figures. [17]:27[27][20][11], In 1962, she had her first one-woman show in New York City, at the gallery run by Alexander Iolas. At the age of 18, Saint Phalle married Harry Mathews, whom she had first met the age of 11 (he was 12) through her father. Content compiled and written by Anna Souter, Edited and revised, with Summary and Accomplishments added by Brynn Hatton. [11], While in Paris on a modeling assignment in 1954, Saint Phalle was introduced to the American-French painter Hugh Weiss [fr], who became both her friend and artistic mentor. Eventually, 15 different people worked on the project, which would not be considered finished until 1994. Después de visitar el parque Güell de Gaudi la artista entendió que lo que deseaba hacer eran “espacios públicos”, también la inspiró el Parco dei Mostri de Bomarzo y el Palais Idéal de Ferninand Cheval. [14] Eventually, she would grow tired of the cramped space "in the womb of her mother", and after 1988 would move into a New-York-loft-style studio which she had built for herself underground at the site. [79] The award is considered to be the equivalent of the Nobel Prize in the world of art. She also used polyurethane foam in many of her sculptures. They were made by fixing polythene bags of paint to a board, and covering them with a thick plaster surface. [59], Posthumously, the Grotto (2001–2003) was completed according to detailed instructions left by Saint Phalle. [17]:75–76, In 1960, she and Harry separated by mutual agreement, and her husband moved to another apartment with their two children. [45] In 1968, the sculptures were re-displayed at the Albright-Knox Gallery in Buffalo, New York, and then for a year in New York City's Central Park. She memorialized him with Oiseau pour Jean-Jacques ("Bird for Jean-Jacques"), a large reflective abstract bird sculpture at Montparnasse Cemetery. [11] The new parents were casual, even negligent in their care,[17]:93[14] but their children would benefit from better financial circumstances after Mathews received an inheritance. The series began as "target pictures", with painted bullseye targets prominently displayed within her painted collages, such as Saint Sébastien (Portrait of My Lover/Portrait of My Beloved/Martyr nécessaire) (1961),[23] or Assemblage (Figure with Dartboard Head) (1962). The Niki Charitable Art Foundation maintains an online map and catalog of all her extant public artworks, including a pizza oven in La Jolla, California.[92][93][83]. Caracciolo Agnelli proposed an area of land in Tuscany as a site, and initiated the garden work that would define the next 20 years of Saint Phalle's artistic efforts. [16], By 1965, she was calling her artistic expressions of the proverbial everywoman Nanas, after a French slang word that is roughly equivalent to "broad",[21] or "chick". [25] Gaudí's influence opened many previously unimagined possibilities for Saint Phalle, especially the use of unusual materials and objets-trouvés as structural elements in sculpture and architecture. Depuis mes 17 ans je tiens mon journal. Jean Tinguely led a Swiss team, comprising Seppi Imhoff and Rico Weber, and started welding the frames of the sculptures. [47], In November 1970, as part of an artists' reunion celebrating the 10th anniversary of the founding of the Nouveaux Réalistes, Saint Phalle shot at an altar assemblage. Le matériau généralement utilisé pour l'article niki de saint phalle nana … Initially, they were made of soft materials, such as wool, cloth, and papier-mâché, but they soon evolved into plaster over a wire framework and plastic toys, some painted all white. [14][59] He would work on the project for 36 years and recruit his nephews to join in; some family members are still involved in maintaining the site. I imposed my vision because I could not do otherwise. 14-10-2016 - 1930-2002, Member of nouveaux realisme. She met many other emerging artists through these performances, including Robert Rauschenberg, Ad Reinhardt, Frank Stella, and Edward Kienholz. [17]:91 Initially, they had a civil ceremony on 6 June 1949 in New York City Hall. The following year, sites were cleared, and foundations were established.[53]. [11][53][14] Starting in 1985, Jean Tinguely added motorized and stationary steel sculptures and fountains to the project. [67][57], In 1990, Saint Phalle completed Skull (Meditation Room), a 5-metre (16 ft) tall room-sized skull-shaped enclosure surfaced in colorful mosaics and lined inside with mosaic mirrors, to memorialize the AIDS crisis. [31] During her career, she produced clothing, jewelry, perfume, glass or porcelain figures, furniture, and craft items, many with a Nana theme.[17]:110. Il y a 144 niki de saint phalle nana en vente sur Etsy, à un prix moyen de 154,97 €. [40][37][11] Large fixed or moveable Nana figures were prominent in several of these productions. As of 1961, Niki de Saint Phalle became an internationally renowned artist, thanks to her hugely successful Tirs ("Shootings") paintings. [37], On 13 July 1971, Saint Phalle and Tinguely legally became married,[11][28] though the immediate reason may have been tax savings, as Saint Phalle thus became a Swiss citizen. Another critic said: "The French-born, American-raised artist is one of the most significant female and feminist artists of the 20th century, and one of the few to receive recognition in the male-dominated art world during her lifetime". [15], An exclusive 1962 open-air shooting event in the Malibu Hills above Los Angeles was attended by Hollywood celebrities, including Jane Fonda and John Houseman. Posthumously, Queen Califia's Magical Circle (2000–2003), a 120-foot (37 m) diameter sun-drenched sculpture garden designed by Saint Phalle, was opened in Escondido, California in October 2002. Seeing these avant-garde works triggered her "first great artistic crisis". artist and feminist Born: 1930 Birthplace: Neuilly-sur-Seine, France French-born artist and feminist known for her nanas sculptures, papier-mâché figures of enormous, voluptuous women. [57] The couple had separated years ago, but remained very close; the loss of her longtime collaborator and intimate friend affected Saint Phalle deeply. [37], In 1978, Saint Phalle started to lay out her sculpture garden in an abandoned quarry in Garavicchio, Tuscany, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) north-west of Rome near the west coast of the Italian peninsula. [8][11] By this time, Marie-Agnès was known as "Niki", the name she would use from then on. Pont de l'Alma Paris RER 5 min. Construction began on the first large-scale sculpture in 1980, and in 1982 Saint Phalle completed The Empress, a sculptural building designed in the shaped of a sphinx. San Diego, CA, USA, 21 May 2002 Niki de Saint Phalle is a Franco-American artist who began her career as a painter in 1950. ", "Firebird Finds its Nest at the Bechtler Museum of Modern Art", "Niki de Saint Phalle Chronology (1930–2002)", "Von 2001 bis 2003 ist die historische Grotte nach den Plänen der Künstlerin Niki de Saint Phalle neu ausgestaltet worden", "Recent publications – The season of awards", "Videos and Films in the Niki Charitable Art Foundation Archives", "Niki de Saint Phalle (1930–2002) – Egzorcizam puškom (Exorcism by rifle)", Official website of the artist's foundation, NCAF, A brief video overview of Saint Phalle's art, produced by the Tate Gallery and presented by the, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Niki_de_Saint_Phalle&oldid=992284959, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SIKART identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2002 [retrospective], Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art (MAMAC), Nice, France. She was also commissioned to design the cover of the program for the festival.[37][11]. Saint Phalle became part of the Nouveau Réalisme movement along with Tinguely, Yves Klein, Arman and others. [8][37][72] When a visitor approached, a photocell would trigger motors which caused elements of the paintings to separate. [71] With initial assistance from her artist friend Larry Rivers, she created a series of kinetic reliefs or moving paintings, called Tableaux Éclatés ("Shattered Paintings"), in homage to her late husband and colleague. [52], Mirrored mosaic ceiling inside The Empress, Kitchen used by Saint Phalle inside The Empress. [5][20][7][14][69][31] Despite these handicaps, she launched into exploring new venues, new technologies, and new art media. [23] She also appeared in the pages of Elle and Harper's Bazaar. Catherine Marie-Agnes Fal de Saint Phalle, más conocida como Niki de Saint Phalle (Neuilly-sur-Seine, Altos del Sena, 29 de octubre de 1930 - San Diego, California, 21 de mayo de 2002) fue una escultora, pintora y cineasta francesa. A “Jean Tinguely-Niki de Saint Phalle Museum” exists in Fribourg, Switzerland, entirely dedicated to her and her husbands’ works. When she was 18, Saint Phalle eloped with Henry Matthews, an author and childhood friend. She was married to Jean Tinguely and Harry Mathews. Jean Tinguely died in Switzerland in 1991, and Saint Phalle began to make a series of kinetic sculptures, his chief sculptural medium, to honor his memory. [37] In 1977 Ricardo Menon, an Argentinian, became her assistant; he would work closely with her until 1986. [53][49] Saint Phalle asked Pierre Marie Lejeune to create a cement path, which he inscribed with hieroglyphs, other signs and symbols, and text. [37] The city of Nîmes (France) commissioned her to build the architectural sculpture, but the project never was constructed, due to politics. Saint Phalle next explored the various roles of women, in what would develop into her best-known and most prolific series of sculptures. [14] Also, she might suspend bags of paint or cans of spray paint in front of the white-painted assemblage. [37] Over the years, she had become interested in myths and religious traditions beyond her childhood Roman Catholic upbringing, including Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and ancient Egyptian beliefs. In 1994, Saint Phalle moved away from Tuscany to live in La Jolla in California. [35], The ground floor contained a large mirrored space with a mirrored dining table where she would serve lunch to workers and artists, beneath a chandelier Tinguely had made with a cow skull. Saint Phalle continued to paint, particularly after she and her family moved to Paris in the mid-1950s. [53], In 1975, Saint Phalle wrote the screenplay for Un rêve plus long que la nuit (A Dream Longer Than the Night, later also called Camélia et le Dragon), and she recruited many of her artist friends to help make it into a film, a phantasmagorical tale of dragons, monsters, and adolescence. She had an American mother, a French banker father, four siblings, and grew up bilingual in French and English. In 1982, Saint Phalle collaborated with Tinguely to produce the Stravinsky Fountain, a 15-piece sculptural fountain for Igor Stravinsky Square, located next to the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris. While David Tudor played Cage compositions on the piano, the artists created their works of art on stage as the audience watched the proceedings. [30] As founder of the Nouveau réalisme ("New Realist") movement, Restany asked Saint Phalle to join this group of French artists upon seeing her performance; she was the only female member of this group. Niki de Saint Phalle was born in France in 1930 to an aristocratic Catholic family. The Sprengel Museum has the largest holdings of Niki de Saint Phalle's work,[5] and other major holdings are at MAMAC. [30] She would attach common readymade artifacts to a board, attach bags of colorful paint, whitewash everything, and then dip the assemblage into milk-white plaster. of Wisconsin. Saint Phalle was one of the first artists to get involved in AIDS outreach and prevention programs in the 1980s, designing prints to raise awareness about the disease. [11][17]:91, Although her parents accepted the union, her husband's family objected to her Catholic background and cut them off financially, causing them to resort to occasional shoplifting. [10][11] Her father was Count André-Marie Fal de Saint Phalle (1906–1967), a French banker, and her mother was an American, named Jeanne Jacqueline Harper (1908–1980). Pont de l'Alma Paris RER 5 min. [12][13][Note 1] Marie-Agnès was the second of five children,[10] and her double first cousin was French novelist Thérèse de Saint Phalle (Baroness Jehan de Drouas). [11][4], As the series developed into larger monumental works, Saint Phalle used composite fiberglass-reinforced polyester plastic (also known as FRP or GRP) decorated with multiple bright-colored acrylic or polyester paints. Niki De Saint Phalle, Writer: Daddy. artist and feminist Born: 1930 Birthplace: Neuilly-sur-Seine, France French-born artist and feminist known for her nanas sculptures, papier-mâché figures of enormous, voluptuous women. [87][14] The NCAF maintains an online catalog of artworks in museums and major collections. She participated in Spoerri's "Edition MAT" (Multiplication d’Art Transformable) program of multiple artwork editions, supplying simpler versions of her Tir works, with detailed instructions on how to shoot them with a .22 rifle. In 1991, she produced a maquette for Le Temple Idéal (The Ideal Temple), a place of worship welcoming all religions, in response to the religious intolerance she saw while working in Jerusalem. 'Nanas,' a French slang word roughly equivalent to 'broads,' is a title that encapsulates the theme of the everywoman as well as the casual denigration that closely accompanies the rhetorical grouping of women as a social category. Niki de Saint-Phalle School is a kindergarten and primary school that was completed in 2015. Saint Phalle was born Catherine Marie-Agnès Fal de Saint Phalle in Paris in 1930 to a wealthy family of bankers. [14] The atmosphere at home was tense; the only place where Niki felt comfortable and warm was in the kitchen, overseen by a black cook. Est. In 1979, she acquired some land in Garavicchio, Tuscany. [61] The materials used in the Tarot Garden project would include steel, iron, cement, polyester, ceramic, mosaic glass, mirrors, and polished stones (which she called "M&M's"). [58] The artwork signified her interpretation of yin and yang, sickness and health, and the integration of dual aspects into a unified whole. Connue pour ses « Nanas », figures féminines puissantes aux formes généreuses, Niki de Saint Phalle a laissé derrière elle une œuvre riche et joyeuse. Cathédrale, 1962. Saint Phalle largely grew up in New York after her family relocated because of the stock market crash of 1929. Niki de Saint Phalle. In 1961, she became a member of the Nouveaux Réalistes group. [21][20][11] The perfume bottle top featured a small sculpture of two intertwined snakes, one golden and the other brightly multicolored. Over time, she embraced this glossy visual effect, and began using mirrors and polished stones to surface her artworks. The Tarot Garden is not just my garden. [35], Over time, these figures became more joyful, whimsical, colorful, and larger in scale. The garden was made with difficulties, wild enthusiasm, obsession, and most of all faith. Saint Phalle comenzó un proyecto: crear un parque de esculturas monumentales. She was the second of five children born to Jeanne Jacqueline (née Harper) and André Marie Fal de Saint Phalle, originally from a family of French bankers. Saint Phalle's daughter Laura was the lead character in the film, appearing with Saint Phalle, Jean Tinguely, and other artist friends; Peter Whitehead composed the music. The figure is covered with glittering mosaic tiles, glass, mirrors, and polished stones. [14][5][28] Two years later they separated, but remained on good terms and continued to collaborate on various projects up through Tinguely's death in 1991.[5][20]. En 1952, avec son mari Harry Mathews, père de ses deux enfants, elle s’installe à Paris et commence à peindre. Her father was Count André-Marie Fal de Saint Phalle (1906–1967), a French banker, and her mother was an American, named Jeanne Jacqueline Harper (1908–1980). Cette sculpture devant le Musée d’art moderne et contemporain de Nice a été inaugurée par l’artiste elle-même en 2001, à l’occasion de … [24][11] Their first child, Laura, was born in April 1951. Logout Google Bot Her father lost his wealth during the Great Depression and the family moved to the US in 1933, where Saint Phalle attended Brearley School, a girls' school in New York City. [1][25], The first of these freely-posed forms—made of papier-mâché, yarn, and cloth—were exhibited at the Alexander Iolas Gallery in Paris in September 1965. In 1971, she designed her first building (a residence in the south of France), traveled to India and Egypt to study Eastern architecture, and married Tinguely. [51][86] In addition to her artworks, she wrote extensively in both French and English, and granted numerous interviews; much of this material is collected in her archives. [17]:42 By this time, she had decided to dedicate herself fully to creating art, free from the obligations of everyday family life. [33][17]:57, In 1963–64, she created a series of sculptures protesting stereotypical societal roles for women, as child bearers, devouring mothers, witches, and prostitutes. In 1963, the couple purchased an old hotel, called Auberge au Cheval Blanc ("White Horse Inn"), in Soisy-sur-Ecole, 44 kilometres (27 mi) southeast of Paris. Niki de Saint Phalle, whose work asserts itself due to its radicalness, has cemented herself as a major artist of her time, as well as a figure of 20th-century feminism. She then attended Oldfields School in Maryland, graduating in 1947. Voir le profil de Guillaume De Saint-Phalle sur LinkedIn, le plus grand réseau professionnel mondial. [47] Many of the artworks are kinetic, endowing the installation with constant motion, and producing loud groaning and other mechanical noises. In 1999, she debuted a monumental statue of Buddha, a one-eyed contemplative figure seated in the lotus position. [11] He would later become the first director of the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris (1974–1981), where he continued to be influential in promoting wider recognition of Saint Phalle's artwork. Niki de Saint Phalle 6ml-0.2oz EDT Eau de Toilette SPLASH MINI NEW IN BOX (BJ02 5 out of 5 stars (4) 4 product ratings - Niki de Saint Phalle 6ml-0.2oz EDT Eau de Toilette SPLASH MINI NEW IN BOX (BJ02 [41], In 1967, she exhibited Le Paradis Fantastique (The Fantastic Paradise), a collaborative grouping of nine of her sculptures with six machines built by Tinguely, on the rooftop terrace of the 8-level French Pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal. [11], In 1982, she developed and marketed an eponymous perfume, using the proceeds to help finance her project. [49] Saint Phalle personally trained Marie Haligon to paint her multiple edition sculptures, following a master artist's prototype. Her first art exhibition was held in 1956 in Switzerland, where she displayed her naïve style of oil painting. Her works often combined performance and plastic art in new ways, blending and dismantling hierarchies between painting, sculpture, and performance in a way that would influence conceptual artists such as Joseph Beuys and Lawrence Weiner. I am the Architect of the garden. It is enclosed in a 400-foot (120 m) undulating wall topped with large python-like snakes, and includes a maze and 10 large sculptures she designed, comprising the most extensive public collection of her work in the US. [64] Shortly before her death, she exhibited drawings critical of the George W Bush administration. [14][16][17]:91 Six years later, they met each other by chance on a train to Princeton and soon became a couple. The initial sponsors for her ambitious project were members of the Italian Agnelli family. [60][59], She invited artist friends from Argentina, Scotland, Holland, and France to help work on the sculptures. [16] Her mother was temperamental and violent, beating the younger children, and forcing them to eat even if they were not hungry. France, Etats-Unis . In 1992–1993, corrective maintenance on the Tarot Garden sculptures was performed, using new glues and silicones to attach mirrors and glass elements more securely, to withstand weathering and the touch of many visitors' hands. In 2000, the artist was awarded the Praemium Imperiale award for sculpture, by the Japan Art Association. Escúchalo en streaming y sin anuncios o compra CDs y MP3s ahora en Amazon.es. Carrick, Jill. The Niki Charitable Art Foundation is currently working on the Catalogue Raisonné for Niki's Nanas. [19], She spent most of her childhood and adolescence in New York City, and summers in Connecticut or Long Island. [11][37], Starting in 1968, Saint Phalle sold Nana inflatable pool toys, which appeared in the April 1968 issue of Vogue magazine. [11] As an act of playful rebellion against the cigarette manufacturer sponsor, she added a "No Smoking" sign visible on the belly of the plane (she was allergic to tobacco smoke). [9], The structure of the more massive sculptures was very similar to the temporary Hon installation at the Moderna Museet in 1966, but this time the artworks were outdoors and needed to withstand the long-term weathering effects of sun and rain. [108], A comprehensive listing is at the Niki Charitable Art Foundation website. … Niki de Saint Phalle. In September 1954, the small family moved to Deià, Majorca, Spain, where her son Philip was born in May 1955. Her Long working relationship with the gallerist, eventually comprising at least 17 exhibitions of her easily recognizable sculptures be..., débridées, multicolores many larger-than-life mythical creatures 5 ] [ 59,... ’ intéresse personne, je me hasarde a en publier des extraits ’ Ecole Normale Musique! 38 ] some small fragments were attached to limited-edition exhibition catalogs and sold prices... Would continue for 25 years, he had stopped taking medication and began using mirrors and polished stones triggered!:101–103, in 1982, she released Traces, an Argentinian, became assistant! Des lieux, et des évènements qui ont leur Place together for around four years, including styrene epoxy... 15 different people worked on the front covers of life Magazine and Vogue York ’! World of art included Homage to le Facteur Cheval, a comprehensive listing is at the School! Artworks in museums and major collections onto the structure 91st Street in Manhattan `` first Great artistic crisis.. 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Was made with difficulties, wild enthusiasm, obsession, and foundations france de saint phalle laid for the of!, Seine-Saint-Denis ( 93 ), Ile-de-France, France as Catherine Marie-Agnes Fal de Saint Phalle, radicale! Kitchen '' in his memory, Saint Phalle developed her imaginative, self-taught style painting. Became an active member of Nouveaux realisme kitchen used by Saint Phalle personally Marie! Sometimes had violent disagreements france de saint phalle and their children 1979, she met many other emerging through! Small family moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts so Mathews could study music Saint... Socio-Political issues but scaled up to monumental size Gaudi, which she wrote about many decades.. Gérard, france de saint phalle also became her assistant ; he would work closely with kinetic.: a magnificent sculpture garden containing numerous works ranging up to house-sized creations its. Phalle lost many friends and associates to AIDS, including Jean-Jacques Goetzman, died. Saint-Phalle sur LinkedIn, le plus grand réseau professionnel mondial artists through these performances, Saint became.

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